Water systems of ancient times relied on gravity for the supply of water, using pipes or channels usually made of clay, lead, bamboo, wood, or stone.
Hollowed wooden logs wrapped in steel banding were used for plumbing pipes, particularly water mains.
Logs were used for water distribution in England close to 500 years ago.US cities began using hollowed logs in the late 1700s through the 1800s.8 Today, most plumbing supply pipe is made out of steel, copper, and plastic; most waste (also known as "soil")11 out of steel, copper, plastic, and cast iron.11 The straight sections of plumbing systems are called "pipes" or "tubes".
Galvanized steel (often known simply as "galv" or "iron" in the plumbing trade) is relatively expensive, and difficult to work with due to weight and requirement of a pipe threader.
It remains in common use for repair of existing "galv" systems and to satisfy building code non-combustibility requirements typically found in hotels, apartment buildings and other commercial applications.It is also extremely durable and resistant to mechanical abuse.
In potable water distribution service, galvanized steel pipe has a service life of about 30 to 50 years, although it is not uncommon for it to be less in geographic areas with corrosive water contaminants. Copperedit Main article: Copper tubing Copper pipe and tubing was widely used for domestic water systems in the latter half of the twentieth century.
In the early twenty-first century, the rising price of copper drove a shift to plastic pipes for new construction. Plasticedit Main article: Plastic pipe Plastic hot and cold supply piping for a sink Plastic pipe is in wide use for domestic water supply and drain-waste-vent (DWV) pipe.Principal types include: Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was produced experimentally in the 19th century but did not become practical to manufacture until 1926, when Waldo Semon of BF Goodrich Co.
developed a method to plasticize PVC, making it easier to process.PVC pipe began to be manufactured in the 1940s and was in wide use for Drain-Waste-Vent piping during the reconstruction of Germany and Japan following WWII.
Plastic supply pipes have become increasingly common, with a variety of materials and fittings employed. PVC/CPVC ? rigid plastic pipes similar to PVC drain pipes but with thicker walls to deal with municipal water pressure, introduced around 1970.PVC stands for polyvinyl chloride, and it?s become a common replacement for metal piping. PVC should be used only for cold water, or for venting. CPVC can be used for hot and cold potable water supply.
Connections are made with primers and solvent cements as required by code.12 PP ? The material is used primarily in housewares, food packaging, and clinical equipment,13 but since the early 1970s has seen increasing use worldwide for both domestic hot and cold water.PP pipes are heat fused, being unsuitable for the use of glues, solvents, or mechanical fittings.
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications.Heating and cooling, waste removal, and potable water delivery are among the most common uses for plumbing however plumbing's not limited to these applications.1 Plumbing utilizes pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids.2 Trades that work with plumbing such as boilermakers, plumbers, and pipefitters are referred to the plumbing trade.
In the Developed world plumbing infrastructure is critical for public health and sanitation. The major categories of plumbing systems or subsystems are:10 potable cold and hot tap water supply plumbing drainage venting sewage systems and septic systems with or without hot water heat recycling and graywater recovery and treatment systems Rainwater, surface, and subsurface water drainagerelevant? ? discuss fuel gas piping hydronics, i.e.
A plumber is a tradesperson who specializes in installing and maintaining systems used for potable (drinking) water, sewage and drainage in plumbing systems.
Roman roofs used lead in conduits and drain pipes4 and some were also covered with lead, lead was also used for piping and for making baths.5 In medieval times anyone who worked with lead was referred to as a plumber as can be seen from an extract of workmen fixing a roof in Westminster Palace and were referred to as plumbers "To Gilbert de Westminster, plumber, working about the roof of the pantry of the little hall, covering it with lead, and about various defects in the roof of the little hall".6 Thus a person with expertise in working with lead was first known as a Plumbarius which was later shortened to plumber.